What is claimed is: An isolated nucleic acid comprising a nucleotide sequence which is complementary to the entire nucleotide sequence of the nucleic acid according to claim 2.
Chapter References Introduction The epidemiological transition and rapid changes in disease patterns have posed serious challenges to health-care systems and forced difficult decisions about the allocation of scarce resources.
Epidemiological information is often required at all levels of health systems, and compilations of mortality and morbidity statistics at the national and subnational levels have been published by many countries for several decades.
However, prior to the Global Burden of Disease Study which began inthere had been no comprehensive efforts to provide comparable regional and global estimates and projections of disease and injury burden based on a common methodology and denominated in a common metric. One of the major goals of the Global Burden of Disease Study was to facilitate the inclusion of non-fatal health outcomes into debates on international health policy, which had largely drawn on the mortality data available in countries, much of it referring to children.
Secondly, there was a need to decouple epidemiological assessment from advocacy so that estimates of the mortality or disability from a condition are developed as objectively as possible.
In addition, there was a need to quantify the burden of disease using a measure that could then be used for cost-effectiveness analysis. The Global Burden of Disease Study method quantifies not merely the number of deaths but also the impact of premature death and disability on a population, combining these measures into a single unit of measurement of the overall burden of disease in the population.
The Study also presented the first global and regional estimates of disease and injury burden attributable to certain risk factors for disease, such as tobacco, alcohol, poor water and sanitation, and unsafe sex.
Quantifiable estimates and projections of disease and injury burden from various exposures to specific disease and injuries, measured in a comparable fashion, are required if information on comparable assessments is to guide health policy debate.
Measuring disease burden The incorporation of the burden of premature mortality and disability into one summary measure requires a common metric. Since the late s, researchers have generally agreed that time is an appropriate currency: A range of such time-based measures has been used in different countries, many of them variants of the so-called quality-adjusted life year.
For the Global Burden of Disease Study, an internationally standardized form of the quality-adjusted life year was developed, called the disability-adjusted life year. The disability-adjusted life year expresses years of life lost to premature death and years lived with a disability of specified severity and duration.
One disability-adjusted life year is the equivalent of one lost year of healthy life. To calculate total disability-adjusted life years for a given condition in a population, years of life lost and years lived with disability for that condition must each be estimated, and then summed.
For example, to calculate disability-adjusted life years incurred through road traffic accidents in India inthe total years of life lost in fatal road accidents must be added to the total years of life lived with disabilities by survivors of such accidents, weighted by the severity of the disability.
For the Global Burden of Disease Study, was chosen as the base year for estimating disease burden. Summary measures of population health Over the past 30 or so years, several indicators have been developed to adjust mortality to reflect the impact of morbidity or disability. These summary measures of population health fall into two basic categories, health expectancy and health gap Murray et al.
Within the former category, Sullivan first suggested weighting life expectancy to measure the health of a population using a single indicator, disability-free life expectancy.
Disability-free life expectancy incorporates a dichotomous weighting scheme, that is, it does not account for varying levels of severity.
Wilkins and Adams suggested a more sensitive weighting scheme based on functional limitations, leading to the disability-adjusted life expectancy approach. As a summary measure of the burden of disability from all causes in a population, disability-adjusted life expectancy has two advantages Murray and Lopez a over other summary measures.
The first is that it is relatively easy to explain the concept of a lifespan without disability to a non-technical audience. The increasing popularity of health expectancy indicators among policy-makers has been documented van de Water et al. The second is that it is easy to calculate disability-adjusted life expectancy using the Sullivan method which relies on prevalence data.
The disability-adjusted life year is an example of a particular type of health gap summary measure which allows the disaggregation of overall disease burden into the burden attributed to specific diseases, injuries, or exposures.
In the Global Burden of Disease Study, the aim was to develop a measure based on explicit and transparent value choices that may be readily debated and modified. Overall, the disability-adjusted life year used in the Global Burden of Disease Study is an egalitarian measure in that it is built on the principle that only two characteristics of individuals that are not directly related to their health, their age and their sex, should be taken into consideration when calculating the burden of a given health outcome in that individual.
Other characteristics, such as socio-economic status, race, or level of education are not considered. Constructing disability-adjusted life years: A standard life expectancy allows deaths at the same age to contribute equally to the burden of disease irrespective of where the death occurs.
Alternatives, such as using different life expectancies for different populations that more closely match their actual life expectancies, violate this egalitarian principle. As life expectancy is rarely equal for men and women, the Global Burden of Disease Study assigned men a lower reference life expectancy than women.
If individuals are forced to choose between saving a year of life for a 2-year-old and saving it for a year-old, most prefer to save the year-old.
A range of studies confirms this broad social preference to weight the value of a year lived by a young adult more heavily than one lived by a very young child or an older adult. Adults are widely perceived to play a critical role in the family, community, and society.These approaches lead to faster and higher quality plans, which are in some cases fast enough to be suitable for inner loops of feedback controllers.
This talk, the first talk of e-Heritage Project, covers our effort for handling in- tangible heritage. We are developing a method to preserve folk dances by the performance of dancing robots.
Philosophy degree in the Department of English at the College of Arts, who argues that this term is unlikely to lead the reader into thinking that the translation is sacred just like the original divine text.
while taking into consideration the syntactic and semantic rules of the target language.
For example. The model is based on. After receiving her Master’s Degree in October , she joined the hcilab at the university of Stuttgart as a research associate and PhD candidate.
reducing negative emotions that may lead to depression or premature death. 3D model, etc.). In traditional classrooms, an example of annotation is drawing with markers over a whiteboard.
degree to which customers and employees, identify and interact with one another to fulfil self-definitional needs/role expectancies) in order to determine the quality of the service encounter. The Sex Instinct and The Sex Appeal Today.
For example one could say "That is a tall building", or "That airplane is high up in the sky". These can both be referred to as the height of the object, as in "The height of the building is 50 m" or "The height of the airplane is 10, m". Animals which live in the water can mate using.
Hot links within news stories which lead the news consumer to related information were the only interactive element having a significant effect on Web site use. As the proportion of women in local news management increases, the degree of interest females have in the station’s stories increases.
Promise Keepers and TV News Coverage of.