Personnel Development are the activities that are designed to improve awareness and identity, build human capital, and facilitate employability. Overall the goal is to enhance quality of life and the pursuit of aspirations.
Similar ratios exist for economically advanced countries, such as Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Japan. The goal is substitution of strategic imports and development of exports.
Basic research has as its objective a fuller knowledge or understanding of the subject under study, rather Development dimensions of personnel function a practical application thereof. As applied to the industrial sector, basic research is defined as research that advances scientific knowledge but does not have specific commercial objectives, although such investigation may be in the fields of present or potential interest to the company.
Applied research is directed towards gaining knowledge or understanding necessary for determining the means by which a recognized and specific need may be met. In industry, applied research includes investigations directed to the discovery of new specific knowledge having specific commercial objectives with respect to products, processes, or services.
Development is the systematic utilization of the knowledge or understanding gained from research toward the production of useful materials, devices, systems, or methods, including design and development of prototypes and processes. At this point, it is important to differentiate development from engineering, which can be defined as utilization of state-of-the-art knowledge for the design and production of marketable goods and services.
In other words, research creates knowledge, and development develops and builds prototypes and proves their feasibility. Engineering then converts these prototypes into products or services that can be offered to the marketplace or into processes that can be used to produce commercial products and services.
In modem industrial practice, the distinction between R research and D development is not always clear. Some companies, such as E. Other companies prefer to conduct little or no research and instead develop new products from the results of research generated by others that may be generally available in the public domain or acquired legally.
The Japanese consumer electronics industry initially utilized the results of American and European research creatively and effectively to enter the international marketplace through new low-cost, high-quality products, which were developed, designed, and manufactured in a relatively short time.
As technology became harder to acquire, many Japanese companies switched from development to research. The following influencing factors should be considered: If a technology can be safeguarded as proprietary, and protected by patentstrade secrets, nondisclosure agreements, etc.
In fact, a valid patent grants a company a temporary monopoly for 20 years to use the technology as it sees fit, usually to maximize sales and profits. Typical examples are the pharmaceutical companies and some high-tech materials producers. Similarly, GE developed man-made industrial diamonds in its research laboratory in the early s.
Although the original patents have expired, GE is still the world's leading supplier. Its major competitor, De Beers, acquired a GE license in the late s and still produces diamonds with the GE process.
In this case, the secret of commercial success is staying ahead of the competition by developing continuously improved software packages, supported by a strong marketing effort.
MapInfo, a new venture founded indeveloped the first software program for displaying maps and related databases on a personal computer. They are still the world leader, thanks to the improved and expanded versions of the original mapping system and to a broad spectrum of application packages issued regularly since first commercialization.
On the other hand, if the market is growing very fast and competitors are rushing in, the "window of opportunity" may close before the technology has been developed by the new entrant. In this case, it is better to acquire the technology and related know-how, in order to enter the market before it is too late.
For instance, in December America Online acquired Netscape, the company with the most expertise in Internet browser software, in order to be able to compete effectively with Microsoft, Yahoo! On the other hand, acquiring technology entails a much lower risk, since the product, process, or service, can be seen and tested before the contract is signed.
This is the reason why rapidly industrializing countries represent a major fast-growing market for technology available from the more advanced nations. In the past such countries acquired older, obsolescent versions of technology, but now they demand the latest, in order to be competitive in the global marketplace.
Regardless of whether the technology is acquired or developed, there is always the risk that it will soon become obsolete and be displaced by a superior technology. This risk cannot be entirely removed, but it can be considerably reduced by careful technology forecasting and planning.
If market growth is slow, and no winner has emerged among the various competing technologies, it may be wiser to monitor these technologies through "technology gatekeepers" and be ready to jump in as the winner emerges.
For instance, in the development of nonimpact magnetic printers, several technologies were researched and developed:Systems Simulation: The Shortest Route to Applications.
This site features information about discrete event system modeling and simulation. It includes discussions on descriptive simulation modeling, programming commands, techniques for sensitivity estimation, optimization and goal-seeking by simulation, and what-if analysis. Personnel management includes the function of employment, development and compensation- These functions are performed primarily by the personnel management in consultation with other departments.
Personnel management is an . UNDP, the United Nations Development Programme, the UN's global development network, advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and .
Introduction. In this era of “faster, cheaper and better”, companies are focusing on improving the product development process. New business strategies, new organizational approaches, new business processes and new enabling technology are being used by many forward-thinking companies to continually improve their product development process.
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Research and development (R&D) represents a large and rapidly growing effort in both industrialized and semi-industrialized nations. In the United States spent $ billion on industrial R&D and $32 billion on military R&D, for a total of $ billion, equal to percent of the gross national product (GNP).