Develop topic-specific content that is explained and supported with details and examples appropriate to audience and mode using precise vocabulary. Distinguish between essential and non-essential information within and among texts, describing the use of persuasive techniques, stereotypes and bias where present Evaluate the presentation of essential and non-essential information in texts. Indentify and explain the literal and figurative meaning of vocabulary Interpret and analyze the effect of literary devices within and among texts e. Locate and select the appropriate source materials to achieve a research goal.
References and Further Reading 1. Strictly speaking there was no Daoism before the literati of the Han dynasty c. So, Daoism was a retroactive grouping of ideas and writings which were already at least one to two centuries old, and which may or may not have been ancestral to various post-classical religious movements, all self-identified as daojiao "teaching of the dao"beginning with the reception of revelations from the deified Laozi by the Celestial Masters Tianshi lineage founder, Zhang Daoling, in C.
Classical Sources for Our Understanding of Daoism Daoism does not name a tradition constituted by a founding thinker, even though the common belief is that a teacher named Laozi originated the school and wrote its major work, called the Daodejing, also sometimes known as the Laozi.
However, various streams of thought and practice were passed along by masters daoshi before these texts were finalized. There are two major source issues to be considered when forming a position on the origins of Daoism. With regard to the first question, Isabelle Robinet thinks that the classical texts are only the most lasting evidence of a movement she associates with a set of writings and practices associated with the Songs of Chu Chuciand that she identifies as the Chuci movement.
This movement reflects a culture in which male and female masters variously called fangshi, daoshi, zhenren, or daoren practiced techniques of longevity and used diet and meditative stillness anto create a way of life that attracted disciples and resulted in wisdom teachings.
Some examples include a coincidence of names of immortals sagesa commitment to the pursuit of physical immortality, a belief in the epistemic value of stillness and quietude, abstinence from grains, breathing and sexual practices used to regulate internal energy qiand the use of ritual dances that resemble those still done by Daoist masters the step of Yu.
In addition to the controversial connection to the Songs of Chu, the Guanzi B. Two other chapters of the Guanzi are called Xin shu Heart-mind book.
The Xin shu connects the ideas of quietude and stillness found in both the Daodejing and Zhuangzi to longevity practices.
The idea of dao in these chapters is very much like that of the classical works. Its image of the sage resembles that of the Zhuangzi. It uses the same term zheng that Zhuangzi uses for the corrections a sage must make in his body, the pacification of the heart-mind, and the concentration and control of internal energy qi.
The Songs of Chu and Guanzi still represent texts which are themselves creations of actual practitioners of Daoist teachings and sentiments, just as do the Daodejing and Zhuangzi. Who these persons were we do not know with certainty.
It is possible that we do have the names, remarks, and practices of some of these individuals daoshi embodied in the passages of the Zhuangzi.
For example, in Chs. As for a reasonable reconstruction of the textual tradition upon which Daoism is based, we should not try to think of this task so simply as determining the relationship between the Daodejing and the Zhuangzi, such as which text was first and which came later.
These texts are composite.
However, we are not certain whether this means that whomever was the source of this material in the Zhuangzi knew the Daodejing and quoted it, or if they both drew from a common source, or even if the Daodejing in some way depended on the Zhuangzi.
In fact, one theory about the legendary figure Laozi is that he was created first in the Zhuangzi and later became associated with the Daodejing.
There are seventeen passages in which Laozi a.The writer should approach the reflection using various literary strategies. Literary techniques such as flashback, for example, may be effective.
Meaning: The extent to which the essay pertains to the author’s life and is valid for reflection. Also the extent to which the essay entertains the reader. -varies structure and length of. Middle School SpringBoard® English Textual Power™ Levels At A Glance (Grades 6, 7, and 8) How do visual images enhance or create meaning?
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New Criticism. A literary movement that started in the late s and s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text, e.g., with the biography or psychology of the author or the work's relationship to literary history.
Imagery in Frost's Acquainted with the Night and Sexton 's Her Kind In order to maximize meaning and overall total effect of a piece of work, writers use various literary devices. These techniques enhance the author's work and add a dimension that results in higher reader satisfaction.
A glossary of art terms related to the painting of Johannes Vermeer and Dutch painting of the Golden Age.