Essential of systems analysis and design

Louis Jia-Ching Lin Introduction When developing information systems, most organizations use a standard of steps called the systems development lifecycle SDLC at the common methodology for systems development. SDLC includes phases such as planning, analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance. At the heart of systems development, analysis and design are the second and third phases of SDLC. The analysis phase usually requires a careful study of the current system, which continues two sub phases:

Essential of systems analysis and design

In this respect, with the possibility of misinterpretations, von Bertalanffy [6] believed a general theory of systems "should be an important regulative device in science", to guard against superficial analogies that "are useless in science and harmful in their practical consequences".

Others remain closer to the direct systems concepts developed by the original theorists. For example, Ilya Prigogineof the Center for Complex Quantum Systems at the University of Texas, Austin, has studied emergent propertiessuggesting that they offer analogues for living systems.

The theories of autopoiesis of Francisco Varela and Humberto Maturana represent further developments in this field. JacksonKatia Sycaraand Edgar Morin among others. With the modern foundations for a general theory of systems following World War I, Ervin Laszloin the preface for Bertalanffy's book: Perspectives on General System Theory, points out that the translation of "general system theory" from German into English has "wrought a certain amount of havoc": Such criticisms would have lost their point had it been recognized that von Bertalanffy's general system theory is a perspective or paradigm, and that such basic conceptual frameworks play a key role in the development of exact scientific theory.

Allgemeine Systemtheorie is not directly consistent with an interpretation often put on 'general system theory,' to wit, that it is a scientific "theory of general systems. Von Bertalanffy opened up something much broader and of much greater significance than a single theory which, as we now know, can always be falsified and has usually an ephemeral existence: A system in this frame of reference can contain regularly interacting or interrelating groups of activities.

For example, in noting the influence in organizational psychology as the field evolved from "an individually oriented industrial psychology to a systems and developmentally oriented organizational psychology ", some theorists recognize that organizations have complex social systems; separating the parts from the whole reduces the overall effectiveness of organizations.

Laszlo [10] explains that the new systems view of organized complexity went "one step beyond the Newtonian view of organized simplicity" which reduced the parts from the whole, or understood the whole without relation to the parts.

Introduction

The relationship between organisations and their environments can be seen as the foremost source of complexity and interdependence. In most cases, the whole has properties that cannot be known from analysis of the constituent elements in isolation.

In the most general sense, system means a configuration of parts connected and joined together by a web of relationships.

Essential of systems analysis and design

The Primer Group defines system as a family of relationships among the members acting as a whole. Von Bertalanffy defined system as "elements in standing relationship.

In fact, Bertalanffy's organismic psychology paralleled the learning theory of Jean Piaget. Some may view the contradiction of reductionism in conventional theory which has as its subject a single part as simply an example of changing assumptions.

The emphasis with systems theory shifts from parts to the organization of parts, recognizing interactions of the parts as not static and constant but dynamic processes.

Some questioned the conventional closed systems with the development of open systems perspectives. The shift originated from absolute and universal authoritative principles and knowledge to relative and general conceptual and perceptual knowledge [16] and still remains in the tradition of theorists that sought to provide means to organize human life.The economic analysis of projects goes back at least to the 's with the evaluation of U.S.

federal water development projects. Since that time, economic analysis has been integrated into the decision making process of most if not all U.S. federal agencies and influenced issues ranging from nuclear power to environmental regulation.

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Essential of systems analysis and design

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