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Communicating systems[ edit ] The information exchanged between devices through a network, or other media is governed by rules and conventions that can be set out in communication protocol specifications.
The nature of a communication, the actual data exchanged and any state -dependent behaviors, is defined by these specifications. In digital computing systems, the rules can be expressed by algorithms and data structures. Protocols are to communication what algorithms or programming languages are to computations.
This communication is governed by well-understood protocols, which can be embedded in the process code itself. Transmission is not necessarily reliable, and individual systems may use different hardware or operating systems. This framework implements the networking functionality of the operating system.
At the time the Internet was developed, abstraction layering had proven to be a successful design approach for both compiler and operating system design and, given the similarities between programming languages and communication protocols, the originally monolithic networking programs were decomposed into cooperating protocols.
Instead they use a set of cooperating protocols, sometimes called a protocol suite. The protocols can be arranged based on functionality in groups, for instance there is a group of transport protocols.
The functionalities are mapped onto the layers, each layer solving a distinct class of problems relating to, for instance: The selection of the next protocol is accomplished by extending the message with a protocol selector for each layer.
The data received has to be evaluated in the context of the progress of the conversation, a protocol therefore must include rules describing the context. These kind of rules are said to express the syntax of the communication.
Other rules determine whether the data is meaningful for the context in which the exchange takes place. These kind of rules are said to express the semantics of the communication.
Messages are sent and received on communicating systems to establish communication. Protocols should therefore specify rules governing the transmission.
In general, much of the following should be addressed: The bitstrings are divided in fields and each field carries information relevant to the protocol.
Conceptually the bitstring is divided into two parts called the header and the payload. The actual message is carried in the payload.
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The header area contains the fields with relevance to the operation of the protocol. Bitstrings longer than the maximum transmission unit MTU are divided in pieces of appropriate size. The addresses are carried in the header area of the bitstrings, allowing the receivers to determine whether the bitstrings are of interest and should be processed or should be ignored.
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A connection between a sender and a receiver can be identified using an address pair sender address, receiver address. Usually some address values have special meanings.
An all-1s address could be taken to mean an addressing of all stations on the network, so sending to this address would result in a broadcast on the local network.
The rules describing the meanings of the address value are collectively called an addressing scheme. This is referred to as address mapping. On the Internet, the networks are connected using routers.
The interconnection of networks through routers is called internetworking. Detection of transmission errors Error detection is necessary on networks where data corruption is possible.
In a common approach, CRCs of the data area are added to the end of packets, making it possible for the receiver to detect differences caused by corruption. The receiver rejects the packets on CRC differences and arranges somehow for retransmission.
Acknowledgements are sent from receivers back to their respective senders. To cope with this, under some protocols, a sender may expect an acknowledgement of correct reception from the receiver within a certain amount of time. Thus, on timeoutsthe sender may need to retransmit the information.
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