The Verb Recognize a verb when you see one. Verbs are a necessary component of all sentences. Verbs have two important functions:
The magazine publisher is the copyright holder of this article and it is reproduced with permission. Further reproduction of this article in violation of the copyright is prohibited. Children often internalize gender role stereotypes from books, songs, television, and the movies Thorne, Nielsen Media Research has found that by the time children are 16 years old, they have spent more time watching television than going to school as cited in Basow, As they develop their cognitive abilities, they assimilate new information and accommodate it to what they already know Piaget, The young child who believes that only women are nurses and only men are doctors may have developed this understanding because the first doctor he or she saw was a man, who was assisted by a female nurse.
This "man as doctor, woman as nurse" idea may have been reinforced further by parents, books, conversations with friends, and television. If the child frequently meets such gender biases and gender stereotypes, this knowledge will be incorporated into future perceptions. Keeping in mind that young children with developing minds watch many hours of television, and recalling how television reinforces gender stereotypes, it is not surprising when children develop stereotyped beliefs.
Research suggests that children who view violent programming on television will behave more aggressively with peers Bandura, ; Strasburger, It is also true that children who view prosocial behaviors on television are more likely to exhibit those types of behaviors themselves.
Young children will imitate and repeat behaviors they see on television. Consequently, children may exhibit these gender-biased behaviors and develop the gender-biased attitudes that they see modeled on television.
Children who witness female characters on television programs who are passive, indecisive, and subordinate to men, and who see this reinforced by their environment, will likely believe that this is the appropriate way for females to behave.
Female children are less likely to develop autonomy, initiative, and industriousness if they rarely see those traits modeled. Similarly, because male characters on television programs are more likely to be shown in leadership roles and exhibiting assertive, decisive behavior, children learn this is the appropriate way for males to behave Cantor, ; Carter, ; Seidman, About two-thirds of characters in television programs are male, a figure that has remained constant since the s Condry, ; Huston et al.
In interactions between men and women, women frequently are defined by their relationships with men Beal, Furthermore, television often does not reflect the reality of the work force. Most women on television are shown working in a profession. Most women in real life, however, are in low-paying, low-status jobs Basow, Most females on prime time television are young, attractive, thin, and have an ornamental quality Davis, Most of these characters are either under 35 or over middle-age women are rare Beal, Females consistently are placed in situations where looks count more than brains, and helpless and incompetent behaviors are expected of them Boyer, Men are twice as likely as women to be shown as competent and able to solve problems Boyer, On music television, a popular program choice among young viewers, females often are shown in degrading positions.
Rap music videos, for example, frequently portray women as objects of lust Basow, ; Seidman, Even so, women are most often shown in the role of wife and mother, or demonstrating products for the home Osborn, as cited in Basow, Another aspect of television advertising that is overwhelmingly a masculine province is voiceovers and narration, in which percent of the voices are male Basow, Even Miss Piggy, a female character, is voiced by a male.
A study of Saturday morning cartoons revealed that females were pictured less often than males, were less active than males, played fewer roles than males, played fewer lead roles than males, and worked primarily in the home Streicher, Although these findings were obtained more than 25 years ago, no significant improvement is evident.
This discrepancy in occupations between males and females also appears in music videos, where more than nine out of 10 occupational roles that were classified as stereotypically male e. It has been suggested the preferences of boys are given precedence over those of girls because boys represent 53 percent of the Saturday viewing audience Watson, as cited in Basow, How Do Movies and TV Influence Behavior?
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Television (TV), sometimes shortened to tele or telly is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
The term can refer to a television set, a television program ("TV show"), or the medium of television alphabetnyc.comsion is a mass medium for advertising, entertainment and . Today’s generation of children and adolescents is growing up immersed in media, using platforms that allow kids to both consume and create content, including broadcast and streamed television and movies; sedentary and active video games; social and interactive media that can be creative and engaging for both individuals and groups; and even highly immersive virtual reality.
The young inventor of electronic television, Philo T.
Farnsworth, graduated from Brigham Young High School in , and qualifies without question as the most influential BYH graduate ever. Buddha and Jesus. Alexander's invasion of India in B.C. starts a closer interchange of thought between India and the West.
Buddhism must have been prevalent in India for over a century before Alexander's time, and he made an effort to acquaint himself with Hindu and Buddhist thought.